The introduction: This paragraph is the first one and its objective is as the name indicates. This section introduces the audience to the topic and the perspective taken for the upcoming discussion. You need to give the necessary background information on the topic in relation to the subject and the reason why you chose to study this particular topic. Discuss the scope of the topic, your special interest it and why the audience should listen to or read through the material you have put together.

You will address the research problem also in this paragraph. The subject area should also be mentioned as the same topic is dealt with from different angles from the view point of different subjects. The last line of the introduction is supposed to be the thesis statement where you will state the theory you are going to present in the body paragraphs. The thesis is the focus of your research paper and hence, should be stated clearly. It is one of the most important parts of the research paper structure. The way you state it matters a lot as your audience will be looking at your research paper from the perspective of the thesis you state.

The topicality of your research paper is explained.

Use short, simple sentences and frame a short paragraph which is informative enough. Each part of the structure of your assignment should be prepared carefully. The introduction of an argumentative research paper should prepare the audience for the upcoming argumentative discussion.

The body paragraphs: The longest portion of the research paper would be occupied by the body paragraphs. You will be elaborating all the points mentioned in the introduction, in the body paragraphs. It is ideal to allot one paragraph to each point but when it comes to less important points you may include two or three in one paragraph. The main challenge with the body paragraphs is to organize the points in smooth way. The transition from one point to the other, in the body paragraphs, if not smooth enough, will distract the readers and make your research paper sound unfocused and confusing. Hence, it is always better to develop the body paragraphs from an outline instead of doing it directly from the roughly noted points.

In the first paragraph you can either explain your theory or straight away get to the bottom of the topic being discussed. Slowly develop your argument. The best way to convince someone about your argument is to cover all the aspects one by one and slowly progress towards the conclusion.

Since the theory is of argumentative nature, you will need to present many pieces of strong evidence which covers all the aspects of the theory. So, first organize the points, ideally using the outline. Most points in an argument will need elaborate description and discussion. Hence dedicate one paragraph each for the points you have collected. This will make it look neat and avoid any possible confusion to the reader.

The conclusion: It is the final part of the research paper structure which is as important as the first one. It will wind up the discussion after giving a summary of the main points. In this paragraph you must reinstate the thesis you stated in the introduction. Even though ‘winding up’ sounds like an easy job, doing it effectively and impressively is not easy. You must summarize the main points in the research paper, put them together in such a way that it will collectively point to the fact that the thesis has been proved successfully.

Conclusion. To what extent have you been able to answer the question raised at the beginning of the paper? Give a general summary of your results and state the conclusions you can draw on the basis of them. To what extent do your conclusions agree with what was known before? If some of your results are inconclusive, e.g. because you have not had enough material, say so. Also indicate what aspects or areas demand further study.

  • References. Under this heading you list your sources in alphabetical order according to the author’s surname. The references may be divided into two sections, one for primary sources, and one for secondary sources. If you have used abbreviations for dictionaries or your primary sources, these should be clearly indicated in the list of references. Click here to see how you go about making references and reference lists. There is also a useful site here (in Norwegian): http://www.hf.uio.no/sitat/ .

The references: The section to cite the sources, called by different names by different documentation styles, is the final component of your research paper. This page must be prepared as per the instructions given in the style manual with necessary alterations as is asked for, by your teacher.

  • Appendices /Appendix. It is often useful to relegate (отсылать) some material to appendices, e.g. long lists of examples or detailed tables. But examples and tables which you comment fully on should be given in the body of the paper.

The thesis statement (a framing question) of the paper is that…

the name of your instructor

Literature review:

Methods of writing your paper:

  • inductive: let the reader take part in the process of discovery; proceed gradually; do not start with revealing your results.
  • deductive: you start with (a taste of) the conclusion, and show how you have reached it.

Method. (a) State along what lines your investigation will be conducted, and, if possible, give the most important sources of inspiration. (b) Define your terms and principles of classification. Explain your use of abbreviations and symbols (if these are numerous, give a list of abbreviations/symbols at the beginning of your paper). State any technical conventions you intend to follow. (c) If your investigation is long and complex, give a step-by-step description of what you intend to do.

Useful phrases for introduction: (несколько вариантов написания введения)

Topicality (актуальность) of this study lies in the assumption that…

Therefore, the present research will display various aspects of the theory discussed, accompanied with the practical part vastly analyzed.

1) The objective (цель) of the study is examination of …

2) Thus, the objective of the present research (study) is to investigate various types of … and ways of …, focusing particularly on… and …, in order to see how the theory is used and could be applied in practice.

The enabling tasks (задачи) are as follows:

  • To review literature on the nature of tests in order to make theoretically well-motivated discussions on the choice of testing types;
  • To analyse the selected types of tests, such as TOEFL and CFC tests;
  • To draw relevant conclusions.

3) The above objective implies the following tasks:

-         To provide a definition of …

-         To reveal…

-         To compare…

-         To group…

The hypothesis is as follows: …..

The object (объект) of the research, thus, is …. Its subject (предмет) comprises investigation of …..

Methods of Research: (The following methods have been used in this study:)

Theoretical:

1)      Analytical and selective study of the theory available;

2)      Juxtaposition of the ideas selected from theory and tested against practical evidences;

3)      Method of component analysis

4)      Method of semantic analysis

5)      Drawing conclusions.

Practical:

  • Selecting and adapting appropriate …., to exemplify the theory.
  • Translation method
  • Descriptive analysis method
  • Cluster analysis

4) The objective of the research is to investigate peculiarities in…. It is performed through comprehension, interpretation and analysis of …, all of them illustrated by examples from texts of ….

The solution of the aim claims for doing away with a number of certain tasks, such as:

  • to point out main features of…;
  • to describe the structure of … and to single out its …
  • to expose peculiarities of …

In order to solve these tasks the author of the research has used methods of studying and analysis of theoretical literature and practical manuals on the problem; the methods of observation, description, means of syntactic and semantic analyses.

The research has been performed in four interrelated steps. Analysis of literature on the problem has logically been the first stage. After it, theoretical basis of the research has been compiled. Then the author has picked up examples illustrating grammatical, lexical and stylistic peculiarities of …. At last, generalisation of results of the research and drawing up final conclusions have been performed.

The paper consists of six chapters each including sub-chapters. Chapter 1 discusses the general data about …. Chapter 2 describes reliability and validity. Chapter 3 focuses on various types of ….. Chapter 4 deals with ways of ….. Chapter 5 speaks on…. Chapter 6 offers the practical part of the paper.

An example:

 CONCLUSION

The present research attempts to investigate….. The research has achieved the initially set goals and objectives. It deals with the basic data about …, where the author has displayed the ideas what is the essence ….,. Afterwards, …., where the author of the paper is gradually showing why….. After the basic data have been discussed, the author  ….. At that point the author of the research has made an attempt to review various sources on the topic. The definitions of the types of……are presented. Later, the author of the research has displayed the ways of……   …. are also presented in the Appendix. The author of the paper has also discussed the ways of…… The attention is drawn to the significance of their usage and the purpose for it. Furthermore, the discussion has changed the focus on another important issue, such as …..Here the author has broadly and explicitly discussed and analyzed ….. The author has focused on their application and skills for which they are used. Moreover, various examples are displayed …. Further, a practical part in the form of ….. is presented.

The author of the paper also deals with the main issues that are very vital and essential in analysis of….. She/he has focused on …. and tried to trace them in….. She/he has thoroughly discussed….. . Moreover, she/he has attempted to compare …. and find out any similarities and differences between them. She has methodically studied…… The author has presented a detailed investigation into the matter together with the examples that can be observed in Appendix 1, as well.

Eventually, the author has gained her/his aim having checked the theory into practice and has proved that it really functiones in the real world. Moreover, she has revealed that though being sometimes different in their purpose, design and structure, …………

Thus, the hypothesis of the present research has been confirmed.

An example:

CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………

CHAPTER 1.  AMERICAN ENGLISH……………………………………..

1.1.          The usage of the language………………………………………..

1.2.           …………………………………………………..

CHAPTER 2. PHONETICS…………………………………………

2.1.  Vowels…………………………………………..

2.2 …………………………………………

CONCLUSION………………………………………..

REFERENCES………………………………………………………………….

APPENDECES/APPENDIX …………………………………………………..